Scientists’ Letter Supporting Marine Reserves

Dear President Obama,

Marine life and the essential ecological services oceans provide are increasingly threatened by human activities including climate change and ocean acidification. For several decades marine scientists have recognized the value of no-take marine reserves for safeguarding marine life. In 1998, Marine Conservation Institute and 1,605 marine scientists issued the “Troubled Waters: A Call for Action” statement (Appendix 1) calling on the world to protect 20% of every marine biogeographic region to save the sea’s biodiversity. In 2001, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis issued its “Scientific Consensus Statement on Marine Reserves and Marine Protected Areas”, outlining the striking ecological benefits for marine life within and outside of no-take reserves and the effects of ecological networks (Appendix 2).

An extensive scientific literature now shows compelling evidence that strongly protected marine reserves are powerful ways of conserving biodiversity. In addition, no-take reserves can create jobs and bring in new economic revenue through ecotourism and enhancement of local fisheries through spillover beyond reserve boundaries. Finally, no-take reserves provide resilience against the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification. Whereas the unprotected ocean is like a debit account where everybody withdraws and nobody deposits, marine reserves are like savings accounts that produce interest we can live off.

The United States and several states (most notably California) have designated many marine protected areas. Multiple-use areas designated to protect natural or cultural heritage now cover about 8% of U.S. waters. But no-take reserves cover less than 3% of the approximately 4.4 million square mile U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. As a nation we need to do better.

Acknowledging this progress and the growing impacts that humans are having on our marine ecosystems and the fisheries they support, we, the undersigned scientists, call on the United States government to dramatically accelerate protections for U.S. waters. Protecting 20% of habitats across all biogeographic regions in no-take reserves will provide the resilience needed to ensure America’s ongoing interest in healthy oceans.

Sincerely,

Enric Sala, PhD National Geographic Society

Sylvia Earle, PhD Mission Blue and National Geographic Society

Steve Gaines, PhD Bren School of Environmental Science & Management

Carl Safina, PhD The Safina Center (formerly Blue Ocean Institute)

Callum Roberts, PhD University of York

Boris Worm, PhD Dalhousie University

Daniel Pauly, PhD University of British Columbia 

Paul Dayton, PhD University of California San Diego

Benjamin S. Halpern, PhD Bren School University of California Santa Barbara

Lance Morgan, PhD Marine Conservation Institute

Rashid Sumaila, PhD University of British Columbia

Makoto Tsuchiya, PhD University of the Ryukyus, Japan

Oran Young, PhD Bren School University of California Santa Barbara

Michael F. Hirshfield, PhD Oceana

Jeremy Jackson, PhD Smithsonian Institution and Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Jesse Ausubel, PhD The Rockefeller University

Stuart Pimm, PhD Duke University

William Cheung, PhD University of British Columbia

John A. Cigliano, PhD Cedar Crest College 

Andrea Sáenz-Arroyo, PhD El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)

Rodrigo H. Bustamante, PhD Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands

Peter Mumby, PhD University of Queensland

Ellen K. Pikitch, PhD Stony Brook University

Jason Hall-Spencer, PhD Plymouth University, UK

David Obura, PhD CORDIO East Africa 

Bob Pressey, PhD James Cook University 

Geraldine Knatz, PhD University of Southern California 

Michael K. Orbach, PhD Duke University 

Claudio Campagna, PhD Wildlife Consevation Society 

Linwood H Pendleton, DFES Duke University

Larry Crowder, PhD Hopkins Marine Station Stanford University

Steve Murray, PhD California State University Fullerton 

Charles H. Peterson, PhD University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Richard Strathmann, PhD Friday Harbor Marine Lab University of Washington

Helene Marsh, PhD James cook University

Neil Hammerschlag, PhD University of Miami

Kiho Kim, PhD American University

Dick Haedrich, PhD Memorial University, Canada

Lauren Mullineaux, PhD Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Alan Friedlander, PhD University of Hawai'i

Mark Hixon, PhD University of Hawai'i

Elliott Norse, PhD Marine Conservation Institute

Amanda Vincent, PhD University of British Columbia, Canada

James A. Estes, PhD University of California Santa Cruz

Fiorenza Micheli, PhD Stanford University

Les Watling, PhD University of Hawai'i 

Patrick N Halpin, PhD Duke University

Peter J. Auster, PhD University of Connecticut and Mystic Aquarium

Elva Escobar, PhD UNAM ICML 

Rudolphe Devilliers, PhD Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

Tony Koslow, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography and University of California

J.E.N. Veron, PhD DSc Australian Institute of Marine Science

Robert Warner, PhD University of California Santa Barbara

Patrick Christie, PhD University of Washington

Vera Alexander, PhD University of Alaska Fairbanks

John C. Avise, PhD University of California at Irvine

C. Scott Baker, PhD Oregon State University and University of Auckland

John Guinotte, PhD Marine Conservation Institute

Shah Selbe, MS Engrsea and National Geographic Society

Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography

K. David Hyrenbach, PhD Hawai'i Pacific University

Sara Maxwell, PhD Stanford University

Ratana Chuenpagdee, PhD Memorial University

Elizabeth De Santo, PhD Franklin & Marshal College

P. Dee Boersma, PhD University of Washington

Ayana Elizabeth Johnson, PhD Waitt Institute

James T. Carlton, PhD Williams College

Katie Cramer, PhD Smithsonian Institution

John Francis, PhD National Geographic Society

Will McClintock, PhD University of California Santa Barbara 

Susan L. Williams, PhD University of California at Davis

Ellen Hines, PhD San Francisco State University

Forest Rohwer, PhD San Diego State University

Benjamin Ruttenberg, PhD California Polytechnic State University

Jennifer Jacquet, PhD New York University

Kenneth Broad, PhD University of Miami and Columbia University

Jessica Carilli, PhD University of San Diego

Edward E. DeMartini, PhD NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service

George H. Leonard, PhD Ocean Conservancy

Douglas Causey, PhD University of Alaska Anchorage

Michael S. Rodway, PhD Wildwing Environmental Research 

Ignacio Vilchis, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Heidi Regehr, PhD Wildwing Environmental Research

Rob Ronconi, PhD Acadia University

Lida Teneva, PhD Conservation International

Robin W. Baird, PhD Cascadia Research Collective

John Pearse, PhD University of California Santa Cruz

Vivian Mendenhall, PhD Pacific Seabird Group

Lisa T. Ballance, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography

John Wares, PhD University of Georgia

Peter JS Jones, PhD University College London

Amanda Freeman, PhD The School for Field Studies

Benjamin Grupe, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Shaye Wolf, PhD Center for Biological Diversity

John D. Booth, PhD Fish Forever, New Zealand

Pablo Garcia Borboroglu, PhD University of Washington

Fabio De Leo, PhD Ocean Networks Canada

Carlos Neira, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Rhian G. Waller, PhD University of Maine

Christine Shulse, PhD University of Hawai'i

Diva Amon, PhD University of Hawai’i at Manoa

N Tessa Pierce, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Erik Cordes, PhD Temple University

Katherine Genevieve Sammler, MS University of Arizona

Danielle Young, PhD Candidate Temple University 

Marcelo Visentini Kitahara, PhD São Paulo Federal University

Sandor Mulsow, PhD Universidad Austral of Chile

Evan Edinger, PhD Memorial University, Canada

Karen Eckert, PhD WIDECAST, Inc.

Claire Saladin, Widecast Coordinator Saint Martin

Jeff Ardron, MSc. Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies

Laurence McCook, PhD Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

Craig R. Smith, PhD University of Hawai'i at Manoa

Geoffrey P Jones, PhD James Cook University

Thomas A. Okey, PhD University of Victoria

Lea-Anne Henry, PhD Heriot-Watt University

Emily Carrington, PhD University of Washington

Tim McClanahan, PhD The Wildlife Conservation Society

Rainer Froese, PhD Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research GEOMAR, Germany

Patricia Majluf, PhD Cayetano Heredia University, Lima, Peru

Paul Havemann LLB (Hons), LLM James Cook University, Australia

Gail Osherenko, JD University of California, Santa Barbara

Sonia J. Rowley, PhD Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum & University of Hawai'i

Eva Ramirez Llodra, PhD Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) 

Julie Hambrook Berkman, PhD Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces

Laurence Mee, PhD Scottish Association for Marine Science

Jeroen Ingels, PhD Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Julie Hawkins, PhD University of York

Sophie Benbow, MS Fauna & Flora International

Wellington Amaral Jr. Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces

Paris Stefanoudis, PhD Student National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

Julia Bentz, MPhil University of the Azores

Andrew Davies, PhD Bangor University

Sybille van den Hove, PhD Median + HERMES, HERMIONE and MIDAS projects

Robert S. Steneck, PhD University of Maine 

Steve W. Ross, PhD University of North Carolina at Wilmington Center for Marine Science

Garry Russ, PhD James Cook University, Australia

Paul Dando, PhD Maine Biological Association of the UK

Brendan Turley, Master's Student Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Thomas C. Shirley, PhD Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi

Vreni Haussermann, PhD Huinay Scientific Field Statio

Alan T. White, PhD The Nature Conservancy

Miriam Fernandez, PhD Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile

Chevallier Damien, PhD Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

Amy Baco-Taylor, PhD Florida State University

Doug Bartlett, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Samantha Andrews, MS University of York

Benjamin Cuker, PhD Hampton University

Daniel W. Anderson, PhD University of California Davis

Lisa Suatoni, PhD Natural Resources Defense Council

Erica Donnelly-Greenan, MS Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge

R. Cotton Rockwood, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Kerri Seger, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Adam Schlenger, MS (PhD student) Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Dorinda G. Dallmeyer, MS/JD University of Georgia

Matthew S. Leslie, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Andrew Titmus, MS University of Hawai'i

Andrea Erichsen, MS Kauai Community College

Matthew Huelsenbeck, MA XPRIZE Foundation

Trevor Joyce, BS Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Marianne Teoh, BS Imperial College London 

Robert M. Croskey, Scientist at Weston Solutions Inc 

Catherine Langford, MA Fish Forever, New Zealand

David Ainley, PhD Friends of the Ross Sea Ecosystem 

Jean M Harris, PhD Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, Scientific Services 

Summer Martin, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Beth Pike, MEM Marine Conservation Institute 

Onno Gross, PhD DEEPWAVE 

Julia Horrocks, PhD University of the West Indies, Barbados 

Jessie Beck, BS Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge 

Liz Taylor, BA President DOER Marine 

Russell Moffitt, BA Marine Conservation Institute 

Anna Zivian, PhD Ocean Conservancy 

Eric W Vetter, PhD Hawai'i Pacific University 

Sarah Hameed, PhD Candidate University of California Davis 

Ginger A. Rebstock, PhD University of Washington 

Trevor A. Branch, PhD University of Washington 

Priya Shukla, BS San Diego State University 

Angel C. Alcala, PhD Silliman University, James Cook University 

Abigail Moore, MS Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan dan Kelautan 

Korneel De Rynck, Masters Environmental Engineer 

Sarah Hughes, PhD National Oceanography Centre, UK 

Mark Erdmann, PhD Conservation International 

Alexander David Tinsley Vierod, MRes Bangor University 

Valeria Falabella Wildlife Conservation Society 

Peter M.D Thomas, MS Animus Conservation 

Margaret Murray Tower, MS National Academy of Science 

Joanne K Birtus Kingston to Coorong Coast Care Group 

Ximena Escovar-Fadul, MS Marine Conservation Institute 

David Bain, PhD NaWhaRe 

Temukisa April Atafua, AS American Samoa Marine and Wildlife Conservation Center 

John Hocevar, MS Greenpeace 

Douglas Krause, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Charlene Steele, BS Bournemouth University 

Lida Pet, PhD World Wildlife Fund 

Erdal Ozhan, PhD Mugla University and Mediterranean Coastal Foundation 

Ruth Murray, MS Marine Conservationist 

Andrea Michelson, BA Vida Silvestre Argentina 

Wen Bo, MPA NGS Air and Water Conservation Fund 

Elizabeth Schrack, PhD Student Duke University 

Sarah Frias-Torres, PhD Smithsonian Institution 

David Williamson, PhD ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies

Sandra D. Brooke, PhD Florida State University Coastal and Marine Lab 

Christopher Koenig, PhD Florida State University Coastal and Marine Laboratory 

Jorge E. Capella, PhD CariCOOS - Caribbean IOOS 

Maria Baker, PhD University of Southampton, INDEEP and DOSI 

Lynne Hinkey, PhD University of Maryland 

Carmen Acevedo, PhD University of Puerto Rico 

Jacob Villalobos, BS New Mexico State University 

Helen Marie Darlington, BS Hull University 

Yashvin Neehaul, PhD The Mauritius Oceanography Institute 

Jessie Thomas-Blate, MS American Rivers 

Lisa DeBruyckere, MA Creative Resource Strategies, LLC 

Katie Sambrook, MS James Cook University 

Mildred Fabiola Corona Figueroa, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala 

Jorge Urban, PhD Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur 

Wanda Bodnar, MSc NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research

Hilary Maybaum, MS McGraw-Hill Education

Cathy Hill, PhD Stockholm County Administrative Board

Lori Schwendeman, MA Mountain Vista High School

Heather Koldewey, PhD Zoological Society of London 

Ryan Stanley, PhD Candidate Memorial University of Newfoundland

Renald Belley, PhD Candidate Memorial University of Newfoundland

Caroline M. Hammerschlag-Peyer, PhD University of Miami Rosenstiel School 

James P. Barry, PhD Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute 

Heather A. Hardcastle, MEM Trout Unlimited 

Kylie Scales, PhD Plymouth Marine Laboratory 

Katelin Shugart-Schmidt, MS Marine Conservation Institute 

Joseph Peters, BS Florida International University 

Lace Thornberg, MA Braided River 

Emma Lewis, MA Independent Blogger 

Emma Schofield, BA Bournemouth University 

Jenna Stolfi, BA The Beach Review 

Helen Cherullo, BA Braided River 

Sanjyot Sangodkar, MEM World Wide Fund for Nature 

Gregory S. Farley, MS Chesapeake College 

Emanuel João Flores Gonçalves, PhD ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Portugal 

Leslie Cornick, PhD Alaska Pacific University 

Gregor Cailliet, PhD Moss Landing Marine Laboratories

Daniel R. Brumbaugh, PhD University of California Santa Cruz 

Juan Carlos Castilla, DSc P. Universidad Catolica 

Erin Stamper, BS University of Hawai'i at Hilo 

Frances Gulland, PhD The Marine Mammal Center 

Gary E. Davis, MS GEDavis & Associates 

Julia K. Baum, PhD University of Victoria 

Caitlin Mandel, MEM University of Rhode Island

Michael Moore, PhD Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Katie Pugliares, MS New England Aquarium 

Daniel Dunn, MEM Duke University 

E. Chris Parsons, PhD George Mason University 

Jeffrey Hutchings, PhD Dalhousie University 

Colin W. Clark, PhD University of British Columbia 

Aldo Chircop, PhD Dalhousie University 

John Patrick Croxall, PhD Birdife International Global Seabird Programme 

Stephan Lutter, MS World Wildlife Fund 

Gerardo Fragoso, PhD Arcadia Fund 

Jayna DeVore, PhD University of Sydney 

Jan Olavi Ekebom, PhD Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services, Finland 

Michael Haldin, BS Forest and Parks Service, Finland 

Lesanna Lyn Lahner, DVM Seattle Aquarium 

Shawn Larson, PhD Seattle Aquarium

Mark Plunkett, MS Seattle Aquarium

SungHyun Nam, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Tim Packeiser, MS World Wildlife Fund

Sheril Kirshenbaum, MS The University of Texas at Austin 

Sarah E. Moffitt, PhD University of California at Davis 

Philip Dearden, PhD University of Victoria  

Claudia E. Mills, PhD Friday Harbor Laboratories University of Washington 

Stuart Sandin, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Lorenzo Rojas-Bracho, PhD Inst. Nacional de Ecologíay Cambio Climático 

Jason Scorse, PhD Director, Center for the Blue Economy 

Joe Roman, PhD University of Vermont and Duke University 

Rebecca Fay Johnson, PhD California Academy of Sciences 

Telmo Morato, PhD University of the Azores 

James A Wilson, PhD School of Marine Sciences University of Maine 

John A. Musick, PhD Virginia Institute of Marine Science College of William & Mary 

Judith Lang, PhD AGRRA Project 

C. Elaine Giessel, BA Sierra Club

Clive Robert Wilkinson, PhD Reef & Rainforest Research Centre and Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network 

Noam Levin, PhD The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Tessa Mazor, PhD Candidate University of Queensland 

Eran Brokovich, PhD Israel Society of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 

Sara McDonald, MEM Duke University Nicholas School of the Environment 

Héctor Pérez, MS Centro de Estudios Culturales y Ecológicos, Prescott College A. C. 

Erik V. Thuesen, PhD Evergreen State College 

Dianna K Padilla, PhD Stony Brook University 

Billie J. Swalla, PhD University of Washington 

Bouveroux Thibaut, PhD Oceamm 

D. Ann Pabst, PhD University of North Carolina Wilmington 

Kathryn L. Van Alstyne, PhD Western Washington University 

Thomas F. Mumford, Jr., PhD Friday Harbor Marine Lab University of Washington 

Catherine Drew Harvell, PhD Cornell University 

Dana Campbell, PhD Encyclopedia of Life 

Dan Laffoley, PhD Mission Blue and Royal Geographical Society 

Wallace J Nichols, PhD California Academy of Sciences 

Stephen Wing, PhD University of Otago 

Karen Bushaw-Newton, PhD Northern Virginia Community College 

Crow White, PhD California Polytechnic State University 

Jennifer Caselle, PhD Marine Science Institute University of California Santa Barbara

Kimberly Ann Selkoe, PhD University of California Santa Barbara 

Tessa Hill, PhD University of California Davis 

Martha Groom, PhD University of Washington Bothell 

Krystal Rypien, PhD Palomar College 

Virginia Stallings, PhD American University

Robert T. Paine, PhD University of Washington

Marta Ribes, PhD Consejo Superior Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain 

Bruce H. Robison, PhD

Phaedra Doukakis-Leslie, PhD University of California San Diego 

Laura Bagge, PhD candidate Duke University 

Samantha C. Smoot, MS Auburn University 

Geoffrey Shester, PhD Oceana 

Kenneth P Sebens, PhD University of Washington 

Guilherme F. Dutra, MS Conservation International

Ruth Thurstan, PhD The University of Queensland 

Cené S. Bryant, BS Naked Whale Research 

J. Emmett Duffy, PhD Smithsonian Institution 

George Lewis Shillinger, MPA/PhD The Leatherback Trust 

Kathryn J Mengerink, JD/PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Andrew A. Rosenberg, PhD Union of Concerned Scientists

Salit Kark, PhD ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions (CEED), The University of Queensland

S.E.T. van der Meij, PhD Candidate Naturalis Biodiversity Center 

David Shiffman, PhD Candidate University of Miami 

Alexandria Kingston, BS Florida Institute of Technology 

Sharon Homer-Drummond, PhD Florida Atlantic University 

Hannah Armstrong, BA RJ Dunlap Marine Conservation Program University of Miami

Sarah Heidmann, BS Oregon State University 

Molly Adams, PhD Candidate University of Miami 

Jill A. Olin, PhD Louisiana State University 

Lukas Mueller, BS The Watermen Project 

Tina Rey Santos, Masters Candidate Institute of Environmental and Marine Sciences Silliman University

Charise Johnson, MS American University 

Stephanie Martin, MMA National Geographic Society 

Britt Odle, BA National Park Service 

Erin LaBrecque, PhD Candidate Duke University 

Mason Weinrich, MS  

Easton R. White, BA University of California- Davis 

Liz Rauer, MS Stanford University 

Arlo Hemphill, MS Maryland Coastal Bays Program 

Lauren Dolan, BS Long Island University - Southampton

Frank Gibson, BA RJ Dunlap Marine Conservation Program University of Miami

David Wilmot, PhD Ocean Champions 

C. Sarah Cohen, PhD San Francisco State University 

Shana Gallagher, BA Tufts University & San Francisco State University 

John Melvin Tanzer, MS James Cook University & University of Queensland

Justin Blake, MS Biznews.com 

J.A. Cado van der Lelij, MS    

Angela Amlin, MEM State of Hawai'i Division of Forestry and Wildlife 

Lindsay Jennings, MPS Marine Conservation Institute 

Lindsey Kraatz, PhD 

Kimberly Ferran Holt, MS Florida Atlantic University 

Nicholas Kevin Dulvy, PhD Simon Fraser University 

Robert Costanza, PhD Australian National University 

Valeria Hidalgo-Ruz, MS Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile 

Jessica Meeuwig, PhD University of Western Australia 

Stacy K. Baez, PhD Oceana 

Robert Perry, BA World Business Academy 

Brenda Rone, MS NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center and Cascadia Research Collective 

Fiona Graham, MS University of Miami - RSMAS 

Kathryn McQueen, BA Miami University 

Nicole Shumway, PhD Candidate The University of Queensland 

Susan Alexander, Graduate Certificate in GIS and Remote Sensing 

Guido Leurs, BS Oceaware 

Micha Gijsbers, BS Oceaware 

Fiona Llewellyn, MS Zoological Society of London 

Phil Bouchet, MRes University of Western Australia 

Karen Donaldson, MA European Marine Board 

Ryan Kempster, PhD University of Western Australia 

Jorge A. Huete-Perez, PhD University of Central America 

Kathi Littmann, EdD Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 

Martina Genovese, BS MS Student 

Brent Colledge, BS Environmental Management 

Dietlinde Wolf, PhD University of Miami 

Patricia J. Elkus, BA Scripps Institution of Oceanography/Mission Blue 

Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, PhD Tethys Research Institute, Italy 

Kirk Sato, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Emily Callahan, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Walter Munk, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Natalya Gallo, PhD Student Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Frazer McGilvray, BS Division of Aquatic Resources state of Hawaii 

Dawn J. Wright, PhD Environmental Systems Research Institute 

Lisa Uttal, MS NOAA Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary 

Samantha Oester, PhD Student Society for Conservation Biology/International Union for Conservation of Nature

Terry Tohidu Hawk, BS University of Oklahoma 

Todd Steiner, MS Turtle Island Restoration Network 

Henry P. Huntington, PhD Huntington Consulting 

Juan Pablo Rodríguez, Licenciado en Ciencias del Mar Universidad de Magallanes, Chile 

Pamela Llewellyn, BA Environmental Scientist 

Lawrence J. Weider, PhD University of Oklahoma 

James H. Swift, PhD UCSD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

G. Carl Schoch, PhD Coastal and Ocean Resources Inc. 

Carlos A. Espinosa, MA dosmares.org 

Alan Springer, PhD University of Alaska Fairbanks 

Mark W. Williams, PhD University of Colorado 

Donald M Waller, PhD University of Wisconsin 

Margaret K Thayer, PhD Field Museum of Natural History 

Barry F Sherr, PhD Oregon State University 

Alan L Shanks, PhD University of Oregon 

George H. Waring IV, PhD Southern Illinois University 

Dennis Lavrov, PhD Iowa State University 

Clive G Jones, PhD Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies 

Herbert Curl, PhD Seattle Audubon Society 

Kyle E. Harms, PhD Louisiana State University 

Thomas Rooney, PhD Wright State University 

Carol Anne Blanchette, PhD University of California, Santa Barbara 

Jenella Loye, PhD University of California Davis 

Dennis Murray, PhD Trent University 

Josef D Ackerman, PhD University of Guelph 

Dorothy Boorse, PhD Gordon College 

Luise Hermanutz, PhD Memorial University 

Charles A. S. Hall, PhD State Uinversity of New York 

Brian Battaile, PhD United States Geological Survey 

Matthew Dzieciuch, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Larry L. Wolf, PhD Syarcuse University 

Michael A. Bell, PhD Stony Brook University 

William R Fraser, PhD Polar Oceans Research Group 

Richard Ambrose, PhD University of California Los Angeles 

Paul Broady, PhD University of Canterbury, New Zealand 

Gary K. Meffe, PhD University of Florida 

Professor Colin Groves, PhD Australian National University 

Stephen Spotte, PhD Mote Marine Laboratory 

Gene R. Trapp, PhD Califonia State University Sacramento

Liba Pejchar, PhD Colorado State University 

Todd W. Anderson, PhD San Diego State University 

Nikolai Formozov, PhD Moscow University, Russia 

Catherine E. de Rivera, PhD Portland State University 

Aaike De Wever, PhD Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences 

Andrew Foggo, PhD University of Plymouth, UK 

W Scott Armbruster, PhD University of Alaska Fairbanks 

Cornelis J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen, PhD University of Copenhagen 

Raimo Virkkala, PhD Finnish Environment Institute 

Michael C. Swift, PhD St. Olaf College 

Roman Zurek, PhD Institute of Nature Conservation Polish Academy of Sciences 

Martin Gibling, PhD Dalhousie University 

Lucyna Halupka, PhD Wroclaw University 

Douglas Alan Holdway, PhD University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada 

Heather M Leslie, PhD Brown University 

Dale M Madison, PhD Binghamton University 

Eduardo E. Inigo-Elias, PhD Cornell University 

Stephan J. Schoech, PhD University of Memphis 

Peter Abrams, PhD University of Toronto 

Christopher M. Rogers, PhD Wichita State University 

Christopher Barnes, PhD University of Victoria, Canada 

Leslie M. Adams, PhD University of Maryland 

Jay Pitocchelli, PhD Saint Anselm College 

David O. Conover, PhD Stony Brook University 

Ivonne Ortiz, PhD University of Washington 

Stuart L. Warter, PhD California State University Long Beach

James Byers, PhD University of Georgia 

Elise Granek, PhD Portland State University 

Howard Feder, PhD University of Alaska

Ralph Cartar, PhD University of Calgary 

David C. Coleman, PhD Ecological Society of America 

James Hanken, PhD Harvard University 

Gail Fraser, PhD York University 

Stephen MacLean, PhD University of Alaska Fairbanks

Carlos Frank Amory Pinkham, PhD Norwich University 

Gary A. Laursen, PhD High Latitude Mycological Research Institute 

Megan N. Dethier, PhD Friday Harbor Labs University of Washington 

Mai Yasue, PhD Quest University Canada 

Christopher Cameron, PhD University of Montreal 

Kirsten Grorud-Colvert, PhD Oregon State University 

Graham Forrester, PhD University of Rhode Island 

Doug Fischer, PhD ARCADIS-US 

Christopher Still, PhD University of California Santa Barbara 

Andrew Greuling, BS 

David K. Mellinger, PhD Oregon State University 

Amber Stronk, BA 

Dominique Barnes, MA Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Vienna Saccomanno, BA Marine Conservation Institute

Jennifer Caselle, PhD University of California Santa Barbara 

Drew M. Talley, PhD University of San Diego 

Cynthia Barbosa da Silveira, MS San Diego State University 

Emily Kelly, MS Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Jason Hastings Murray, PhD IM Systems Group 

Mark Tetrick, MAS University of Washington 

Mary Yang, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Talina Konotchick, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Arthur J. Miller, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Matthew Forrest, PhD Scripps Institute of Oceanography 

Grantly Galland, PhD Galland Consulting 

Jennifer Smith, PhD Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Laurence Romeo, MA Scripps Institute of Oceanography 

Phil Bouchet, MRes University of Western Australia 

Melissa Roth, PhD University of California Berkeley 

Yan Wei Lim, BS San Diego State University 

Merry Youle, PhD Rainbow Rock 

Patricia McKenna, MSW 

Jerry R. Schubel, PhD Aquarium of the Pacific

Jacqueline Padilla Gamino, PhD California State University 

Jeffrey O'Hara, PhD Union of Concerned Scientists 

Allison Randolph, BS Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Shelley Dahlgren, PhD 

Garry Dale, BS Oregon State University 

Kevin Warren, BA 

Luz Helena Rodríguez-Vargas, MS Universiti Sains Malaysia 

Phoi Tran, PhD Lawrence Berkeley National Labs 

Cynthia Jennings, MA 

Onno Gross, PhD DEEPWAVE 

John Conley, MBA

Tracy Ouellette, MD 

Julie Hambrook Berkman, PhD Foundation for Good Governance of International Spaces 

Lawrence Niles, Phd Conserve Wildlife Foundation of NJ 

Karen L. Noorbut-McElhany, MA 

Jeb Byers, PhD University of Georgia 

Nikita Steele, MS Rhodes University 

K. David Hyrenbach, PhD Hawai'i Pacific University 

Patrick McCauley, BS Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 

Julia Horrocks, PhD University of the West Indies